Archive for the ‘India-U.S. Relations’ Category

Hillary Clinton’s Visit to India

An article by Teresita C. Schaffer on Hillary Clinton’s 2009 visit with the newly elected Indian government.

Her main objective was to give the Obama administration and the newly elected Indian government “ownership” of a relationship that both consider vitally important. She certainly did that, with a four-day blitz of high-profile media and serious official meetings. She hit all the high points that she had defined as “pillars” of the relationship, engaging with business leaders and showcasing visits to one of India’s premier women’s development organizations and to India’s first environmentally certified building. She signed two important new agreements, a Technical Safeguards Agreement permitting U.S.-licensed components to be used on Indian civilian spacecraft, and an agreement creating a $30-million endowment to fund science, technology, and innovation. The Indian government settled the end-use monitoring arrangements needed to permit major military sales from the United States and pledged to designate two sites for U.S. companies to build nuclear facilities. She launched a strategic dialogue with Foreign Minister S.M. Krishna, which should be the instrument for more serious consultations on foreign policy issues, including both regional issues affecting South and East Asia and the big global issues that will shape the future of the world.

Originally published July 23, 2009 by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Critical Questions. Read the entire article.

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India and the United States in the 21st Century: Reinventing Partnership

Written by Teresita C. Schaffer and published by the Center for Strategic & International Studies in June 2009.

The U.S. has emerged as India’s most important international ally. Starting in the mid-1990s, the U.S. and India did a remarkable job of adding substance to their rather thin Cold War-era relationship. The bilateral infrastructure for a serious partnership is now largely in place. The two countries have done much less, however, to turn their shared international interests—such as peace and security in the Indian Ocean and East Asia, stability in the Persian Gulf, and the integrity of energy markets—into a common bond. Moreover, they have had a hard time working together multilaterally. Of the four big global issues the Obama administration is focusing on, financial reform offers good opportunities for India-U.S. Collaboration, but the other three—trade negotiations, climate change, and nonproliferation—expose policy gaps between the two countries.

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Partnering with India: Regional Power, Global Hopes

A chapter written by Teresita C. Schaffer in Strategic Asia 2008-09: Challenges and Choices, edited by Ashley J. Tellis, Mercy Kuo and Andrew Marble.

With a booming economy, an increasingly trade-driven foreign policy, an expanding footprint both in Asia and on the global scene, and strong relations with the great powers, India’s strategic horizon is generally positive. The U.S. is India’s most important outside friend, and the new relationship between the two countries is based on important common interests, especially in Asia and in Indian Ocean security. Yet at the same time India’s foreign policy outlook rests on a strong political commitment to “strategic autonomy”—avoiding even the appearance of undue outside, and especially U.S., influence on its policy. U.S. experience with partnerships, however, involves mainly working with junior partners. This disconnect complicates the task of developing the U.S.-India partnership.

Published by the National Bureau of Asian Research (NBR). Read the entire chapter.

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U.S.-India Nuclear Deal

An article by Teresita C. Schaffer on the halted nuclear deal between the United States and India.

Closer relations with the United States have been a fact of life for a decade and are a centerpiece of India’s post–Cold War foreign policy, supported by virtually all major political parties. The bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement (“123 Agreement”) that India and the United States announced on July 27, 2007, was a move toward implementing their civilian nuclear deal and was greeted with jubilation inside both governments. Surveys suggested that it was also popular with ordinary Indians. Political opposition, however, soon arose in India.

The killer objections came from the leftist parties, part of the parliamentary majority but not formally part of the Indian government. The ideological leadership of the Communist Party of India–Marxist (CPM), the largest party within the left, has not been part of this consensus, sounding the alarm bells about the danger of India’s foreign policy becoming subservient to that of the United States. “Strategic autonomy,” perhaps the most emotive foreign policy issue in India, has wide political resonance.

Originally published October 31, 2007 by the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Critical Questions. Read the entire article.

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India at 60: The India-U.S. Nuclear Deal on Hold

An article by Teresita C. Schaffer on India’s decision to put the U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Agreement on hold.

The bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement (“123 Agreement”) India and the United States announced July 27, 2007 was a move towards implementing their civilian nuclear deal, and was greeted with jubilation inside both governments. Surveys suggested that it was popular with ordinary Indians. But it faced political explosions in India. Of the three Indian groups that had expressed concerns about the deal, one, the nuclear establishment, pronounced itself satisfied with the 123 Agreement. The other two went into rising choruses of opposition. The opposition Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which many believe would happily have accepted the same deal had it been in power, objected on grounds that it might place restrictions on India’s nuclear arsenal.

Originally published in the Center for Strategic & International StudiesSouth Asia Monitor on October 26, 2007. Read the entire article.

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The Bush Visit and the Nuclear Deal

An article by Teresita C. Schaffer and Pramit Mitra on the implications of the U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Agreement.

After a jubilant visit by President George W. Bush to Delhi and stops in Pakistan and Afghanistan, the spotlight has turned to Capitol Hill. Legislation to amend the 1954 U.S. Atomic Energy Act to allow the president to go ahead with the recently concluded U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Agreement was introduced in both houses of Congress on March 16, 2006. Administration officials are optimistic that it will pass, though they recognize that this will take hard work and the process will be complicated. If the Bush administration succeeds, however, the agreement could provide a major boost to U.S.-India bilateral relations and change the priorities and operation of the nonproliferation regime.

Originally published in the Center for Strategic & International Studies‘ South Asia Monitor on April 3, 2006. Read the entire article.

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Engaging India: The U.S. Role in India’s Fight against HIV/AIDS

A report by Teresita C. Schaffer and Pramit Mitra on the Task Force on HIV/AIDS, as directed by the Center for Strategic & International Studies.

The HIV/AIDS epidemic is both a major international issue for the United States and one of the most serious questions hanging over India’s future, extending beyond public health into India’s economic and social prospects. Since 1986, when the first case was reported in India, HIV has spread rapidly from urban to rural areas and from high-risk groups to the general population.

Originally published by CSIS on June 1, 2005. View the entire report, or the annotated version.

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Outsourcing: The New Big Thing or the Slippery Slope?

An article by Teresita C. Schaffer and Shilpa Rajan on the implications of the growing trend of U.S. companies outsourcing jobs to India.

Outsourcing has provided additional jobs for India and lower costs for U.S. businesses, creating winners and losers in both countries. The most interesting questions concern its impact on international production processes. Outsourcing-related sectors are among the most open in the Indian economy. Will their success encourage greater openness? The United States, with its generally open market and its array of multinational corporations, has for the past three decades been steadily integrating with the rest of the world. The same is true within individual major corporations. Regardless of possible changes to tax codes or requirements for government procurement in the United States, and barring a major depression or interruption in telecommunications services, this trend is now likely to encompass services that do not need to be rendered in person.

Originally published in the Center for Strategic & International StudiesSouth Asia Monitor on December 1, 2004. Read the entire article.

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Special Report: Rising India and U.S. Policy Options in Asia

A report by Teresita C. Schaffer and Mandavi Mehta on the Center for Strategic and International Studies’ year-long “Rising India and U.S. Policy Options in Asia” study and its corresponding conference.

India has completed a decade of economic growth at twice its pace in the last half-century and has emerged as a nuclear armed country. Although its future will depend on how it handles a host of domestic and international constraints, India may well emerge in the next two decades as a significant power in the broader Asian environment and on a global scale. For the United States, the “Rising India” study underlined the importance of two key building blocks for U.S.-Indian relations—India’s economic growth, and the new convergence between Indian and U.S. views of security in the Indian Ocean and in Asia. U.S. policymakers will need to integrate their views of South Asia, East Asia, and to some extent the Middle East in ways they have not normally done in the past. At least in the next 5–10 years, U.S. relations with China and India may well be complementary rather than conflicting. The unresolved problems between India and Pakistan, however, still stand as a complicating factor in India’s international posture and its relationship with the United States.

Originally published in CSIS‘ South Asia Monitor on December 1, 2001. Read the entire report.

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